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Evans State Archaeologist, Kevin T. Kohl, Utah Statewide Archaeological Society. The purpose of this publication information relevant to archaeological research, both historic and prehistoric, in the state of Utah. ISSN Kevin T.

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Ronald J. Rood Editorial Assistant: Renae Weder. Davis, Dorothy Sack, and Nancy Shearin. Rood Front Cover: Clovis projectile points from site 42MD see Davis et al. Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al sandal types of the central Colorado Plateau: Douglas A.

McFadden ,Bureau of Land Management, 3 18 North East, Kanab, Utah 1 The Virgin Anasazi, although generally considered to be a single cultural entity, occupied a number of discrete geographical areas in southern Utah, northern Arizona and southern Nevada.

One of the more varied and distinctive was the Grand Staircase section of the Colorado Plateau Stokes Settlement data, based on recent intensive inventories, is presented and analyzed in terms of local adaptation to the Grand Staircase environment. High densities of architectural servvices are located in a variety of diferent arable settings between 5, and 7, m to m - the zone of prehistoric agriculture.

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Handsome smart guy searching 4 lady friend These site clusters are interpreted to be dispersed communities that were occupied, probably discontinuously, om the early Basketmaker period into Pueblo times. On the level of the individual site, Virgin architectural layouts and internal structure reflect a tendency to be complex and long lived; they were however, frequently abandoned and reoccupied.

Rather than separate and unrelated occupations, these Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al are demonstrated to be part of the Virgin settlementpattern. It is suggested that this unique "Virginpattern" reflects a specialized adaptation to the Grand Staircase.

A model of residential mobility is proposed as a formal strategy that permitted shifting between multiple agricultural locales in response to climate change. The Virgin Anasazi culture area is generally considered to extend over portions of southern Nevada, northwestern Arizona, and southern Utah.

Although this distribution spans a wide range of environments and encompasses a variety of settlement patterns, similarities in artifacts and architecture Looking for a married woman to only watch me been, and remain, the primary basis for assigning cultural affiliation. While the validity of the Virgin Tradition remains a subject of debate, it is most often treated as the taxonomic equivalent of other distinctive Anasazi cultures: Aikens' 1 landmark assessment of Virgin and Kayenta relationships is largely responsible for establishing the Virgin Anasazi as a separate cultural entity.

Influenced by Archeology as Anthropology BinfordAikens used ethnologicalcategories, rather than individual artifacts, to compare the "overall lifeways" of the two"cultura1 systems" being investigated. Considering site patterning, subsistence related technology, ceremony, recreation, dress, and ornamentation, he concluded that prior to Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al.

By the end of the Pueblo I period however, there was an "increased degree of formal differentiation," particularly in terms of architectural style, that indicated the two groups had becomeuseparate sociocultural populations" Aikens As Fairley has pointed out, Aikens did not discuss the "processes responsible for this regional differentiation" Altschul and Fairley My thesis assumes that it is precisely the forces of adaptation that best account for the distinctiveness of the Virgin Anasazi.

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At the outset, it should be pointed out that there is still no agreement among researchers as to whether the Virgin Anasazi Dsting be considered the taxonomic equivalent of the better known Anasazi cultures. Ambler, for instance, has suggested the Virgin area could actually be further subdivided into the Kanab, Virgin and Moapa Branches.

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These districts are proposed as having separate ethnic and linguistic status Ambler On the other hand, Euler has stated "Certainly Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al now it should be clear that any attempt to rigidly draw fixed boundaries between the Kayenta and the Virgin Anasazi is an Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al in futility and in reality not intellectually productive" Euler In a recent synthesis of the regions prehistory, Lyneis has cautiously subdivided the area into geographical districts rather than into cultural units.

Lyneis appropriately reasons that "In this region, where relatively little excavation or detailed artifact analysis has been undertaken, it is difficult to know how well our cultural concepts relate to any prehistoric sense of ethnicity or boundedness" Lyneis My approach to the dilemma of assigning cultural affiliation is not with artifact analysis, nor solely with excavation data. It is essentially ecological; I will describe settlement patterns, through time, as they relate to the environment of the Grand Staircase physiographic section Figure 1.

Site types, their distribution, and most importantly, the internal site formation processes that set them apart from other Anasazi groups, are characterized as part of a distinctive"Virgin pattern. The following observations are relevant: Virgin architectural sites almost invariably have a high capacity for storage, from Basketmaker I1 through late Pueblo IIIPIII times; residential sites are distributed over a variety of arable niches on the Grand Staircase but they are not found outside the zone of agriculture; 1604 most importantly, excavation data indicates that episodes of site occupation, abandonment and reoccupation were a common practice on Quebec diane phone sex good looking guy for gal Grand Staircase throughout the sequence.

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The adaptive implications of these practices are intriguing: In the context of the geographically diverse and temporally variable Grand Staircaseenvironment, residential Real girls fun may be viewed as part of an adaptive strategy that permitted the Virgin Anasazi to practice agriculture in an environment subject to a variety of short-term environmental fluctuations. I argue that the episodes of occupation evident in the Georrges archeological record do not simply represent multicomponent sites, but are the result of a specialized cultural practice on the Grand Staircase, and possibly a Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al of the larger Virgin Tradition.

Inventory Methods and Interpretive Concepts. If "the answers are in the dirt" for the excavator of an archeological offilne, for the Bureau of Land Geeorges BLM archeologist, the answers Georgfs in the inventory data.

The distributional data for this study relies on over routine clearance inventories carried out on the Grand Staircase, the Kaiparowits Plateau to its east, and the high plateaus to the north. Many of Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al surveys involve hundreds of acres, one involves tens of thousands. Two large-scale sample inventories also contribute to our understanding of site types and their distribution,although they have added little direct knowledge of Virgin settlement patterning.

The Datung informative inventorieswere Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al carried out as part of a BLM inhouse effort to simply document and protect sizable areas known to New trenton IN sexy women high densities of vulnerable architectural sites.

Expanding the inventory boundaries in these high density areas served to identify clusters of sites which are now interpreted as communities, or portions of them.

The identification of settlement patterns, that is, recognizing how sites are distributed across the landscape, should be an objective of Cultural Resource Management CRM as well as the study of prehistory.

The Grand Staircase is a. Did the natural environment affect Virgin site distribution?

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Were specific strategies required to farm in this marginal environment? Is Virgin culture a specialized Anasazi adaptation? Dtaing questions are admittedly a departure from more traditional concerns with sorting out social and cultural relationships based on material traits, but I would argue that specialized adaptations could also reflect an ethnic reality.

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Unlike material culture traits, the adaptive strategy of a prehistoric group, as a behavior, is not easily "blended" as are pot sherd Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al and architectural styles. The Darwinian, or Eugene woman looking for something real, approach to understanding the significance of cultural traits and features found in the archeological record attempts to define cultural practices that are contingent upon both the group's history, as well as its environmental setting 07Brienand Holland If distinctiveVirgin traits found on the Grand Staircase, such as storage architecture and residential mobility, have the requisite histories, i.

If the Virgin Anasazi are viewed simply as participants in an Georgew stylistic zone and interaction sphere" Glassow Married couple want orgasm teen Such an underlying behavior might crosscut the economics of subsistence to affect the social and ideological subsystems of Virgin culture-systems of descent, belief, mortuary practices, and means of land tenuring- a sort of "indigenous orchestration" sensu Sahlins of culture could result that gives Virgin culture its distinctiveness.

Clarence E. Dutton Sg Grand Staircase Figure 1 is one Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al sixteen physiographic sections that characterize the varied geomorphological environments found on the Colorado Plateau Stokes Each provides a potentially useful framework in which to consider local adaptation, particularly formative adaptations. The Grand Staircase extends from the Grand Canyon northward 80 miles km to the High Plateaus subdivision; from the Kaibab monocline on the east where BBasin borders the similar but much dryer Kaiparowits Plateau, westward 70 miles 1 13 km to the Hurricane fault which marks the abrupt transition to the lower Sonoran desert of the St.

George basin Figure 1.

My focus is restricted to the Utah portion of the Grand Staircase which I need some head bad ill host characterized by the great cliff lines and terraces that begin at about 5, R and 7, ft m and m and, in tread-and-riser-likefashion, climb to an elevation of over 9, R 2, m near Bryce Asian clown girls National Park.

Although best Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al for the spectacular cliff lines themselves-the Shinamp, Vermilion, White, Gray and Pink- it is the intervening benches that create a series of elevational thresholds within this cold desert Baain. Each offers a slightly different niche for the exploitation of floral and faunal resources and, most important, varying micro-climates that offer different degrees of opportunity and risk for the prehistoric agriculturalist.

These natural subdivisions conveniently allow structuring of the inventory data into discrete zones permitting the investigation of site types, density, and period of occupation in terms of their local environment.

In many of the Anasazi sub-regions, particularly the Four Comers area, modem dry farming is routine Petersen This is Georves the case on the Grand Staircasewhere modem agriculture is marginal at best. As Herbert Gregory pointed out, "With deficient spring rains and great fluctuations in July rains, agriculture without irrigation is profitable.

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Many dry farms have been abandoned" Gregory Even so, localities that are the most favorable today for agriculture are also those with the highest architectural site densities. This simple correlation of architectural sites, supported by subsistence data, is taken to infer that the Virgin Anasazi were also agriculturalists, subject to similar vagaries of weather, and that they too had to Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al their farmsteads on occasion.

Agricultural Zone. The vast majority of upland Virgin sites seevices in dry farm situations that are solely dependent upon precipitation.

Utah Archaeology Volume 9, Number 1, by Utah State History - Issuu

Within the zone characterized by architectural sites, modem rainfall on the Grand Staircase ranges from an annual high of 16 in 41 cm in Adult singles dating in Applegate west at 6, ft m to just under 11in 28 cm on the east at 5, ft m Kanab Sg files.

Assuming the Hopi annual average of 10 in 25 cm Dozier to be close to the minimum for agriculture, precipitation throughout the Grand Staircase is adequate, although, influenced by topography Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al well as elevation, it can be quite variable. The adjacent Kaiparowit. Plateau annual average, based on 14 rain guage stations, is only about 8 in 20 cm Kanab BLM files - an amount similar to the St.

George Basin where agriculture is restricted to perennial streams ideas. With notable exceptions, occurring in special circumstances, dry farm agriculture tS probably restricted to the Grand Offline in this portion Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al Utah.

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The second critical variable for assessing agricultural potential is length of growing season. The minimum growing season requirement for maize is usually considered to be days Adarns The range of fkost-free and "growing degree days" Ashcroft et al.

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Suitable soils for agriculture, although highly variable, occur throughout the Grand Aervices. Soil type does become critical, as we will see, in the context of certain microenvironments within the Grand Staircase.

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All recorded architectural sites on the Grand Staircase fall within the elevations Datlng 5, ft m and 7, ft m. Assuming that the presence of architecture is a proxy for the practice of agriculture, we can infer that Virgin Anasazi adaptation on the Grand Staircase involved its accommodation to the zone of arable land bounded on.

We also assume that the optimal agricultural zone varied according to both short and long term climate fluctuations; accordingly, we can expect Virgin site distributions to be responsive to these changes.

Both random sample and Bureau of Land Management "intuitive" inventories of large tracts provide the primary data for this study.

They are grouped into three separate geographical areas of the Grand Staircase physiographic province for purposes of analysis Figure 1: The environment and inventory results of each area are briefly summarized below. The Grand Staircase Unit Inventories Four tracts Looking for business menout of Waterloo company a Dating services offline in St Georges Basin al of 7, acres have been intensively surveyed east of Kanab resulting in recorded sites.

Extending from the ArizonaAJtah border northward, the tracts include portions of the area below the Shinarurnp Cliffs, the unnamed terrace above the rim, the area extending out from the base of the Vermilion Cliffs, and the Wygaret Badin above the Vermilion Cliffs.